hydrazine hydrate

hydrazine hydrate



Hydrazine is an inorganic component with N2H4   as its chemical formula. This compound is a colorless and highly flammable oily liquid with an ammonia-like odor. Its characteristics are expressed below:

Density 1.021 g cm−3
Melting  point 2 °C
Boiling Point 114 °C
Flashpoint 75ºC


Hydrazine is extremely noxious and hazardously unstable till it dissolves in water and procures‏ hydrazine hydrate (NH2NH2 · xH2O). Hydrazine molecular weight is 32 and the hydrazine hydrate with one H2O molecule or monohydrate has a molecular weight of 50. The ratio of their weight is 32/50 or 0.64. it means 100% of hydrazine hydrate contains 64 % of hydrazine. so it is important to clearly expression by means of application due to not misunderstanding of these two products.

Hydrazine applications

Because of its spectacular structure with two amines, hydrazine is a key parameter for the preparation of many organic heterocyclic compounds. In the specific reaction, hydrazine reacts with imides to produce triazoles. As a brilliant nucleophile compound, it can attack sulfonyl and acyl halides. To produce hydrazones there is a need to Reaction occurrence between The tosylhydrazine and carbonyls. it also has a Wide variety of applications in agrochemicals, as an anti-scaling, purification processes heating and cooling systems

hydrazine hydrate

Hydrazine hydrate is a colorless liquid that smells like ammonia. It is Also called Hydrazine Monohydrate. This compound is miscible in water in any congruence and it is not soluble in chloroform. If this component mix with the carbon dioxide in the air the product is a white fume. It is known with H6N2O as its chemical formula. Its characteristics are expressed below:

Density 1.032 g/ml at 20⁰C
Melting  point -51.5ºC
Boiling Point 120.1ºC
Flashpoint 75ºC


hydrazine hydrate


hydrazine hydrate

Hydrazine Hydrate marketplace

It is estimated that the Compound Annual Growth Rate of hydrazine hydrate market gains 4.9% up to 2024. Increasing the requirement of polymer foams in related industries have a major effect on the hydrazine hydrate market due to the prognosis period. Its application in many industries will help the market to grow.

hydrazine hydrate Synthesis

There are some methods for hydrazine hydrate synthesis and three methods are mentioned here:

First method: synthesis of hydrazine hydrate from hydrazine sulfate and potassium hydroxide, for this purpose, the mixture of dehydrating hydrazine sulfate and comminuted potassium hydroxide and distilled water were placed. For the first of reaction heating is not dispensable and in the following heating is necessary. Reaching pure hydrazine hydrate needs fractional distillation and it will distill in the temperature range of 117 to 119.

synthesis reaction


Second method: synthesis of hydrazine hydrate from hydrazine sulfate and sodium hydroxide

In this method hydrazine sulfate and sodium hydroxide are applied to a flask with a condenser and distilled water are appended gently through the condenser; the reaction starts and it is very important that any vapors should not be released through the condenser. Hydrazine hydrate may be titrated with standard acid using methyl orange as an indicator or about 0.1 gram, accurately weighed, of the hydrazine hydrate solution is diluted with about 100 ml of water, few drops of starch indicator added, and immediately before titration 5 grams of sodium bicarbonate is introduced. The product is distilled by direct heating. The distillate is a clear liquid and it consists of 40-45% of hydrazine hydrate.

synthesis reaction


Third method: A procurement procedure of hydrazine hydrate which contains the step of hydrolyzing a ketazine in a distillation column to reach hydrazine hydrate in presence of silicon dioxide and nonionic surface active agent having a polyoxyethylene group in its molecule.

Hydrazine hydrate applications

it has a wide range of applications in industries and can be applied as pharmaceutical intermediates, procurement of superb purity metals, in combinatorial fibers, dyes and as reducing agent and it also can use an oxygen scavenger to regulate the concentration of oxygen to prevent corrosion. One of its important usages is as the precursor to polymerization catalysts. Another application of hydrazine hydrate is as rocket fuel and gas precursors preparation in airbags.

Hydrazine hydrate safety and Precautions

This chemical is grouped as hazardous materials by the 2012 OSHA Hazard Communication Standard

Cause it is very air sensitive so do not allow evaporation to dryness it causes smoke

Acquire special instructions before use

Before use read all statements about precautions

Do not tactility until all safety precautions have been read and realized

Use personal protective tools as required Wash face, hands and any exposed skin thoroughly after handling

Do not eat, drink or smoke when using this component

Use only outdoors or in a well-ventilated area

Do not breathe dust/fume/gas/mist/vapors/spray

Polluted work clothing should not be allowed out of the workplace

Put on protective gloves

Keep away from heat/sparks/open flames/hot surfaces

No smoking Keep cool

Noxious if swallowed

Noxious in contact with skin Causes extreme skin burns and eye damage

May cause respiratory inflammation

May cause an allergic skin reaction

Noxious if inhaled May cause cancer











Polymers used in water treatment are of high water solubility and they are synthetic, although a few natural polymers use because of their awesome characteristics. Polymers are broadly specified by their ionic content: cationic, anionic and non-ionic. indeed, ionic polymers should be named polyelectrolytes, although this phrase is not always pursued. One of these polymers which known as an efficacious polyelectrolyte is Polyacrylamide.

This polymer is widely used as a flocculant in the treatment of both industrial and municipal wastewater. And as its high separation and purification feature, it can be used in a wide range of industrial wastewater treatments like chemical industries, food industries, inorganic suspensions like kaolin and bentonite, effluents containing colors, paper industries, effluents containing metal ions and limited extent purified sewage. According to the tables below each industry can select desired items due to its application and related industry even drinking water purification and sewage treatment.

product code charge density molecular weight 
C1250CF high high
C1260CF high high
C1270CF high high
C1280CF high high
C8020CF medium high
C8030BF medium medium
C8030CF  medium high
C8035BF  medium medium
C8035CF  medium high
C8040BF  medium medium
C8040CF  medium high


product code charge density molecular weight 
A456 medium medium
A556 high high
A756 high medium


product code charge density  molecular weight 
RY540C medium middle high
RY560C high middle high
RY580C high middle high
RY1525 medium high


In this part, some examples of how an industry can select these electrolytes as flocculant for treatment of its wastewater are described.

polyacrylamide powder
polyacrylamide powder

For instance, drinking water grade PAM is mainly used in water purification and sugar making industries, fermentation industries and, etc. and also for treatment of raw water both polyacrylamide and poly aluminum chloride can be applied to separation and flocculation of solid and liquid phases but using PAM will reduce other additives amount that lead to diminish in costs and remained sludge.



polyelectrolyte polyelectrolyte

industrial grade polyelectrolytes


For this purpose, these two grades of PAM A556PWG, A656PWG is Recommended. In food industries like sugar producing PAM is sufficient in the purification of the solution and high performance of flocculation so A756PWG is Recommended for this purpose. for treatment of sugar cane molasses industry mixture of conventional coagulants like poly aluminum chloride and PAM give us a brilliant result and for this purpose, these two grades are recommended. in industrial fermentation to purification solutions from solids these grades A556PWG, A756PWG and also C8040PWG, are recommended.

product code charge density molecular weight 
A245PWG low low
A345PWG low middle low
A456PWG medium medium
A556PWG high high
A756PWG high medium
C8020PWG medium high
C8040PWG medium high





Morpholine is an organic chemical component with O(CH2CH2)2NH as its chemical formula. because it has atoms of at least two different elements as members of its ring(s) this chemical component is grouped in heterocyclic compounds and it contained both amine and ether functional groups. Because it has amine in its structure, morpholine is grouped in bases. and it reacts with acids to produce salt or acrylamide. Morpholine is a colorless liquid with a smell like fish (ammonia) and with the 100°F Flashpoint. Morpholine density is less than water and it is miscible in water and a variety of organic solvents like aromatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, ketones, and ether. it is partly miscible in oils. morpholine Vapors are heavier than air. It has limited miscibility in alkaline aqueous solutions
This component also known by these names:


Diethylene oximide
Diethylenimide oxide
Diethyleneimide oxide
Diethylene imidoxide

chemical formula:



Morpholine can be specified by gas chromatography (GC) liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ion chromatography (IC). Low concentrations of this compound in the air can be determined by the GC analyzer.

Morpholine synthesis

In the industrial scale, Morpholine is often procreated by the dehydration reaction of diethanolamine with sulfuric acid.


Morpholine application

It is guesstimated that around 25000 tons of morpholine per year are produced industrially globally. The main production procedure is the reaction between diethylene glycol and ammonia in the attendance of hydrogen and catalysts.
This compound also is used to make other chemicals and detergents. One of these compound applications is to avoid metals from corrosion especially in systems which are dealing with water like steam boiler systems; as an emulsifier in
cosmetics industry; a segregating factor for light amines; an
intermediate in the production of optical Illuminators; an intermediate agent for textile
lubricants, softening factor, as a collaborator, whitening factor, sizing emulsifiers, antioxidants, surface-active factor, plasticizers,
viscosity ameliorative and insecticides, herbicides, dyes, catalysts,
bactericides, analgesics, anesthesia agents.

Morpholine msds



Flammable liquid and vapor

Harmful if swallowed

Toxic in contact with skin

Causes severe skin burns and eye damage

Harmful to aquatic life

personal Precautions:

Keep away from heat, sparks, flames, hot areas, and No smoking because this compound is flammable.

Morpholine environmental impacts and effects on human health

Human and environmental disclosure arises and directly from some of its usages, containing, for instance, its use in the cosmetic industry and waxes and rubbers and corrosion inhibitor usage. As a result of its use in waxes and polishes, morpholine is released into the environment through vaporization. Morpholine is chemically permanent in the biosphere. Morpholine is a noxious compound consumed in industrial and agricultural purposes and can be absorbed
into the body through absorbency, aspiration, and through the skin and through its absorption it can affect the structure of the kidney and disrupted its activity. It also causes annoyance on metabolic mechanisms.







Influence of morpholine on changes in kidney tissue and white

blood cells of NMRI male Albino Mice, Zare K, PhD1, Adeli HR, MSc2*, Naeimi N, MSc3, Naghizadeh A, PhD




Cyclohexylamine is an organic compound that is grouped to the aliphatic amine type. It is a colorless liquid, although, like many amines components, they are often colored through their dissolved contaminants. Cyclohexylamine is known with C6H13N as its chemical formula. It smells like fish (ammonia)and it is miscible in water. Due to its nature and ammonia groups, it is a weak base. It is a beneficial intercurrent in the procurement of many other organic materials. This is a high consumable volume chemical with procurement over 1 million pounds annually in the U.S.
It is also called:

chemical formula:



Synthesis of cyclohexylamine

Cyclohexylamine is procured through two routes, the principal one known as hydrogenation of aniline in the presence of cobalt or nickel as the catalyst:


Cyclohexylamine Applications

Cyclohexylamine is used through the synthesis reaction of other organic compounds as an intermediate. It is the chemical precursor to materials with sulfenamide based reagents and it is used as accelerators for vulcanization. It may use as corrosion Preventive. Some sweeteners are made of this kind of amine, especially cyclamate. It is also used in hexazinone and the anesthetic production.
It has been used as an aid in the printing ink industry too. It is also used in a water treatment plant agent and to procure Sodium N-cyclohexylsulfamate. It is used in the metalworking fluids industry.


because of its low flash point at 28.6 °C, it is flammable. It is noxious by both ingestion and inhalation; the inhalation itself may cause death. It rapidly absorbs through the skin to the body, which may cause inflammation. And It is also corrosive. Cyclohexylamine is known as acutely hazardous materials as defined in Standards .the standard amount of cyclohexylamine that is allowed to be exposed by workers is less than 10 ppm (40 mg/m3) through an eight-hour work shift.

It ca cause earnest or continual injuries. It is highly flammable and can be ignited under almost all environmental temperature situations and this compound is totally stable in whole circumstances. Its vapor may go through a considerable distance
Through the combustion process, toxic oxides of nitrogen may exposure it is also attached to the nervous system. And related to standards 50-500 mg/kg can be lethal for a human.








Benzotriazole (BTA) | Tolyltriazole

Wastewater Treatments

Benzotriazole (BTA)

Benzotriazole (BTA) is a chemical compound which is known by C6H5N3 as its chemical formula. because it has atoms of at least two different elements as members of its ring(s). This chemical component is grouped in heterocyclic compounds. This component also known by these names: 


chemical formula:


This compound is an odorless, crystalline powder and can be utilized in a various range of applications. Three kinds of material involve in BTA reaction: o-phenylenediamine, sodium nitrite, and acetic acid. In lower temperature about 5 to 10 ˚C the synthetic reaction can be ameliorated.

Benzotriazole applications

Although this chemical compound has a lot of uses in many industries but the most prevalent application is impeded metals against corrosion particularly for copper. Copper due to its various application in various ranges of industries is exposed to corrosion. To prevent this effect Benzotriazole used as a barrier film to hamper metals due to corrosion and damaging. This function is operational for many types of equipment that are pertinent to water like cooling water systems. For other metals like aluminum, it has its Corrosion prevention application too. When Benzotriazole applied on the surface of the metal it does not change its appearance. It is just a top coat to prevent damaging and doesn’t have any other effects for the metal. Benzotriazole has been famous for its excellent conformity and a reagent for the analytical specification of silver. BTA can be used as antifreeze, heating and cooling systems, hydraulic fluids and vapor phase inhibitors as well.


Environmental impact and issues

As a matter of environmental issues, Benzotriazole is forcefully stable in natural environments like water and soil. And a small amount of it may prevent plants growth. They may decompose by the Fenton reactions. This compound is partially released from wastewater treatment plants and a considerable portion reaches surface water such as rivers and lakes, as a result, this chemical component should not be released into the environment. Keep in suitable, closed containers for disposal in Laboratory scale and treated before Released in the environment on an industrial scale. Dispose of container to an approved waste disposal plant in order to Non-release in the environment.

Benzotriazole main safety data

noxious if swallowed and may Causes serious eye inflammation
Flash Point: 170 °C / 338 °F
Autoignition Temperature: 210 °C / 410 °F
Personal discretion
Ensure sufficient ventilation, use personal accouterments and avoid dust formation.


Tolyltriazole is a chemical compound which is known by C7H7N3 as its chemical formula. tolyltriazole is commonly used for the commercial combination consisted of nearly the same amounts of 4- and 5-methyl benzotriazole with a small content of the 6- and 7- methyl isomers. this chemical component is grouped in heterocyclic compounds. This component also known by these names:


Tolyltriazole application

Tolyltriazole is used as an inhibitor of corrosion of copper and copper alloys. Also, it used as antirust additives of metals. This compound doesn’t have any influence on metals appearance, conductivity, and electricity.
These two compounds can bring in one data sheet because their application is almost the same but their chemical structure and appearance is Different.



PCA | Phosphino Carboxylic Acid


Phosphino Carboxylic Acid (PCA) is an organic component with molecular formula CH3O2P. It is a clear and colorless liquid, with a slight odor and the pH range of 3-3.5. Phosphino Carboxylic Acid has extraordinary properties. It is completely soluble in water and improves water quality. So it is also known as a water treatment agent.

This product composed of carboxylic acid and phosphate groups. Therefore PCA has good thermal stability for these phosphate groups and at the same time, it has the characteristics of carboxylic acids.

It is classified as a dispersion agent and can be used in water treatment and boiler water system. In addition to the mentioned properties, PCA can be a good inhibitor for CaCO3, CaSO4, and BaSO4.

PCA has corrosive properties. it can cause skin burns or corrosive some metals. So safety tips should be considered when using this material.

 NOTE: it is important to know that, this product has an industrial application and should not use for treating drinking water.


It is suggested to be used in cooling water or boiler systems, oilfield, reverse osmosis (RO), ceramic industry, etc.


Calcium carbonate is one of the most important materials that use in the ceramic industry. So the use of PCA in ceramic industries can disperse CaCO3. therefore it can control the CaCO3 scale and improve properties.

Boiler system:

Boiler systems produce hot water or vapors in Power plants, factories and etc.

Some impurities like CaCO3 and CaSO4 in the boiler system can cause deposition and eventually boilers to fail. Therefore use this product as dispersion, preventing sedimentation and improve the life of boilers.

In boiler systems, this product can be stable until 900 psig pressure.

Cool water system:

In a cool water system, Phosphino Carboxylic Acid retains the heat transfer property and acts as a corrosion inhibitor. By adding ZnSO4 or copolymer with this product, the inhibitory effect of PCA can improve.  In a cool water system, the probability of calcium carbonate formation increases in high pH. So in alkaline conditions by adding this product, The problem of calcium carbonate formation can be solved.

Industrial wastewater has some impurities that can damage the environment. With recycle, these impurities can help nature or reduce cost. both of HEDP and Phosphino Carboxylic Acid use in the water treatment process. But a little use of this product is equivalent to HEDP and is superior to polyacrylates.

Pulp and paper industry:

Phosphino Carboxylic Acid in pulp and paper industry acts like as phosphonates and acrylates. This product is stable in alkaline conditions and can control the scale of CaCo3 and CaSO4.


Due to its specific visibility, impartiality and affordability of barium sulfate, it is widely used in the oil and gas drilling industry. This is one of the vital minerals in the oil drilling industry. By adding this product, it can affect as a scale inhibitor for BaSO4 and SrSO4.

Storage conditions:

Storage this product in a cold and dry place.

ATMP | amino trimethylene phosphonic acid

ATMP or amino trimethylene phosphonic acid is an organic compound and having a high melting point of 215 °C and a density of 1.3 g/mL at 25 °C. ATMP acid plus, its sodium salts are broadly applied in for anti-scaling and descaling operations and recirculated cooling water systems for power station, oil field, central air-conditioning, refinery and etc. the Molecular Formula is N(CH2PO3H2)3. ATMP has excellent chelation. It can prevent the

Molecular Formula:   N(CH2PO3H2)3  

Molecular weight:  299.05

CAS No.  6419-19-8

Structural Formula:



COA report:


creation of calcium carbonate in particular, in the water system. Also, it is able to reduce the corrosion of metal equipment and pipeline. ATMP has good chemical stability. It is hard to be hydrolyzed in water system due to a chemical bond between C_P. it forms Sustainable Complex with numerous metal such as Fe, Cu, Al, Zn,…. It is crystal powder in solid state and dissolvable in water, suitable for usage in winter and freezing districts but mostly it present in the colorless liquid state in marketing.

Chemical Structure Depiction:

ATMP make use of chelating factor in woven and dyeing industries and as a metal surface treatment agent. ATMP utilize with other organic acids, polylactic acid or salt to form organic water treatment agents for circulating cooling water systems.
It is used for petroleum addable, Textile auxiliary factors, chemical filtration.
Why Should You Treat Your Boiler Water with ATMP?
Boilers are very sentimental to the quality of water used. Presence of high degree of dissolved solids suspended particles, and sludge in boiler water is undesirable. They cause scaling of the boiler tubes thereby negatively touching its output. This results in the cost of production are high.
ATMP can improve boiler water conditions. By chelating action, it makes carbonates and sulfates remain in solution form. So no deposition will occur. Usually, the boiler can collapse when boiler tubes are heated beyond the melting point of the metal. It results from rising temperatures on the fireside as thick scales prevent effective heat transfer. Replacing a boiler is too expensive. And that’s why it’s better to treat boiler water.
Oilfield scaling such as limescale (calcium carbonate) may conduce to obstruction of pipes or slow down the fluid flow. Preventing this scaling in the oil and gas industry is essential in continuing high efficiency.
ATMP 50 is recommended for use as a scale inhibitor in refinery and thermal power plants.

It can store for ten months in room shady and dry place.

Production process:

(1) ammonium chloride was added to the kettle, phosphorous acid aqueous solution and water, heated to 60 ℃ ~ 70 ℃ and efficiently shattered to completely dissolve the material; formaldehyde solution was then added dropwise, and the temperature control at 90 ℃ ~ 105 ℃, after finishing of the dropwise addition of formaldehyde, HCl generated was recovered by recovery of hydrochloric acid; turn fed to a distillation kettle after (2) incubation, slowly heated to 110 ~ 120 ℃ when omit unreacted ammonium chloride, formaldehyde, until no material was distilled off, the cooling water through cooling, discharge products.





In case of contact with eyes, clean immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves, and eye/face protection.


“Figure 2f from Irimia R, Gottschling M (2016) Taxonomic Revision of Rochefortia Sw. (Ehretiaceae, Boraginales). Biodiversity Data Journal 4: e7720. Https://Doi.org/10.3897/BDJ.4.e7720.” 4 May 2019, doi:10.3897/bdj.4.e7720.figure2f.
“Figure 2f from Irimia R, Gottschling M (2016) Taxonomic Revision of Rochefortia Sw. (Ehretiaceae, Boraginales). Biodiversity Data Journal 4: e7720. Https://Doi.org/10.3897/BDJ.4.e7720.” 4 May 2019, doi:10.3897/bdj.4.e7720.figure2f.
Yurtoğlu, Nadir. “Http://Www.historystudies.net/Dergi//Birinci-Dunya-Savasinda-Bir-Asayis-Sorunu-Sebinkarahisar-Ermeni-isyani20181092a4a8f.Pdf.” History Studies International Journal of History, vol. 10, no. 7, 4 May 2019, pp. 241–264., doi:10.9737/hist.2018.658.
“Figure 2f from: Irimia R, Gottschling M (2016) Taxonomic Revision of Rochefortia Sw. (Ehretiaceae, Boraginales). Biodiversity Data Journal 4: e7720. Https://Doi.org/10.3897/BDJ.4.e7720.” 4 May 2019, doi:10.3897/bdj.4.e7720.figure2f
Yurtoğlu, Nadir. “Http://Www.historystudies.net/Dergi//Birinci-Dunya-Savasinda-Bir-Asayis-Sorunu-Sebinkarahisar-Ermeni-isyani20181092a4a8f.Pdf.” History Studies International Journal of History, vol. 10, no. 7, 4 May 2019, pp. 241–264., doi:10.9737/hist.2018.658.

HEDP | Hydroxyethylidene diphosphonic acid

PolyacrylamideHEDP or Etidronic Acid or Hydroxyethylidene diphosphonic acid is a corrosion inhibitor. The Molecular Formula is C2H8O7P2. It combines with Fe, Cu, and Zn ions and chelates those to form stable chelating compounds.it can melt the metal oxide of the metal surface as well. It has two states, solid like white crystal powder and liquid-like colorless to yellowish acidic liquid. HEDP in solid type is crystal powder. Due to its high purity, it is decent for usage in winter and freezing area.it has the best functional under temperature  250centigrade degree.it is stable in high PH.it hydrolyzed and decompose sorely under ordinary light and heat condition.

Molecular Formula:   C2H8O7P2

Molecular weight: 206.02

CAS No.  2809-21-4

Structural Formula:



Furthermore, this component is used in several industrial applications such as anti-corrosion and anti-deposition in circus system, in the basis of petroleum; low-Pressure Boilers and in metallurgy industry. this component is an essential element in cosmetic formulation for oppressing organizing free radical, stabilize emulsion and control viscosity.it is functional in Cosmetic industry, water refinery and Detergent .it is utilized in the middle of chemical materials in swimming pool as inhibitor.it keeps the color-blending sides the pool. HEDP Na2 use in cool water flow, medium boiler, water pipelines and Corrosion inhibitor in the field of electricity, chemical industry, manure and etc. HEDP Na2 use as detergents for metal and non-metal. In  Dyeing industry, HEDP Na2 use as peroxide Stabilizer and the coloring agent. In Nano cyanide plating, HEDP Na2 use as Chalet factor.  In spite of the above, the most used of this compound is in the water purification and water treatment area.



It is created by reaction Phosphorus dichloride with acetic acid or by reaction acetic acid/ stearic anhydride with Phosphoric acid.  STORAGE: It can save for 10 months in the shade and dry room.



All in all, this product is ascendant in the global market. The main reason of growth this matter in the global market is a high rate of the township, increase in revenue of consumer and the negative point of it is the undesirable effects of it such as weaken the body, skin problems, bone pain and etc.





Acidity, this combination should not be in contact with human hands or eyes. And in case of contact, immediately wash it with plenty of water.

Symbol (GHS):


Signal word: Danger


COA report:




1-Hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-diphosphonic acid. (n.d.). Retrieved May 1, 2019, from https://www.chemicalbook.com/ChemicalProductProperty_EN_CB4719658.htm

HEDP, Hydroxyethylidene Diphosphonic Acid. (n.d.). Retrieved May 1, 2019, from https://www.irohedp.com/

Etidronic acid. (n.d.). Retrieved May 1, 2019, from https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Etidronic_acid



Kaolin, a hydrated aluminum silicate, which also known as China clay, Argilla, Glomax & Porcelain clay, is a white powder and commonly obtained by extraction from mineral deposits. It is found naturally in mineral sources and the main component of it is Kaolinite. This substance has a different size from 0.1 to 10 micrometers or more & widely used in production of Porcelain and Paper. The best sources of this material are found in France, Britain, Czech and United states.


Physical and chemical properties

Molecular formula H2Al2Si2O8H2O
Molecular weight 258.16 gr/mol
Odor Odorless
Color White to yellowish or grayish
Solubility Insoluble in water, ether & dilute acids


The production of this material can be either laboratory or extracted from natural mines. Today, natural mineral extraction is known as the most economical and best way to produce this material and is widely used in many countries around the world. There are two ways to kaolin purification, dry process or wet process.



 Dry process

Dry process major steps are crushing the deposit, drying and trituration. Usually, at the end of the dry process, the powders are separated by size.

In this process, the raw mined is converted into egg-sized particles by roll crushers. The materials are then transferred to rotary dryers and aerial floaters. The next steps usually involve pouring and separating by air. Finally, suitable powders are collected and coarse grains are again used as input feed.


Wet process

In the wet process, a slurry is first formed of kaolin and then the separation processes are applied, and the dewatering and drying process is also carried out.

In this method, the mined is first dispersed in water. The next step is the separation of coarse particles on the shaking plates, at which point particles with a size greater than 44 microns are removed. The remaining slurry is sent to the centrifuge separator, which separates the particles into appropriate, medium and coarse sizes.

Particles may be used to whiten the chemical because of the presence of non-white colored iron. The particles then become free of water during a filtration process, drying can be done by rotate or spray driers. After this stage, China clay is ready for transportation. This process is performed to produce high purity kaolin by controlled properties.


Uses and benefits



In ceramic industries this substance used widely. Some special properties such as: high fusion temperature, color, hardness and burning properties makes this mineral a good choose to production of ceramics. In manufacturing of whiteware, it is mixed with some other materials like feldspar, silica and ball clay, these materials improve plastic properties of whiteware.


Although Porcelain clay is the main ingredient in ceramic and china manufacture, but contrary to the general perception of people, this material also has other applications in the rubber, paper and paint industries.



In paper production it is used as a filler and a coating agent. About 40% of produced China clay is used in filling and coating paper. Color, printability and giving glass are the properties of paper that improve by appearance of this substance.



In color, China clay enjoys a high coating capability due to neutrality and insolubility in the paint, and improves the flow properties of paint at low cost.



Adding this material to thermosetting and thermoplastic mixtures increases surface fineness, good secondary stability and increases resistance to chemicals.



In addition to the industrial applications mentioned for this article, it is also used in medicine.

Porcelain clay seems to be beneficial in the treatment of oral ulcers due to some radiation.

Using kaolin impregnated pads and inserting them on the cuts causes the hemorrhage to be wider than usual. In post-surgical recovery, the use of a pad impregnated with this substance also suggests faster wound healing.

In some cases, it is also used to treat diarrhea and colon inflammation, but there is still insufficient evidence to prove its usefulness in this area.


Side effects

Eating this substance will not pose a risk to most people, but it can cause constipation in children and the elderly. Inhalation of this substance can cause lung inflammation.


COA of kaolin











Murray, H. H. (1963). Industrial applications of kao.lin. Clays and Clay Minerals10, 291-298.

Britannica, T. E. (2015, October 19). Kaolin. Retrieved February 17, 2019, from https://www.britannica.com

Kaolin. (n.d.). Retrieved February 17, 2019, from https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

Sodium hydroxide solution 50%

Liquid Sodium hydroxide

Liquid soda with the chemical formula NaOH, known as other commercial names, caustic soda, liquid sodium hydroxide, , is one of the most widely used chemicals in the world. Colorless and odorless liquid with a higher density than water (2.13 g/cm³) and molar mass of 39.997 g/mol.

The caustic soda or lye sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is one of the most consumable chemicals in the world. The largest industry that use this substance is the paper industry that can be used to make pulp and paper whitening paper. Other industries, such as dairy factories, also use this substance to wash their equipment.


Liquid soda is usually produced by electrolysis of sodium chloride and mercury, diaphragm cells or membrane cells.


*In the petrochemical industries and oil and gas refineries, are used to remove acidic components such as hydrogen sulfide, cresylic acid, mercaptan, naphthenic acid.

*Water treatment and reduction of water hardness

*The detergent industry is added to the water due to its ability to dissolve fat, oil.

 *In the pharmaceutical industry it is used in the manufacture of a wide range of drugs, such as aspirin and blood cholesterol reducers.

*In the food industry to keep the nutritional value of the products used in their preparation process.

*It used to produce fuel cells. Epoxy resins, which are made with sodium hydroxide, are used to make wind turbines.

* Metal industry and glass, aluminum, galvanizing and electroplating.

* Dyeing industry.

Safety and hazards:

Contact with eyes: This substance is very corrosive. It causes eye irritation, severe wounds, and permanent damage to the eyes.

Skin contact: This substance is highly corrosive and can cause severe and deep burns and persistent ulcers in the skin. This material can penetrate the deep layers of the skin and can damage it. The degree and severity of its damage depends on the concentration and duration of the contact.

Swallowing and eating: Eating this substance may cause serious and permanent damage to the digestive system. Eating this substance involves severe digestive tract infections, severe pain, burning of the mouth, throat, nausea and diarrhea.

Inhalation: Inhalation of this substance may cause severe respiratory irritation and even lung edema.

Note: In the event of an accident, the first and only effective action is to wash the eyes or skin with water.

Note: It is an Inflammable substance.


As caustic soda is a corrosive substance, steel or polymer tanks should be used in packaging and maintenance of this chemical.There is also a remarkable point about this material, controlling the storage temperature. Because viscosity of soda increase at lower temperatures. For this purpose, the temperature should always be adjusted to 29 to 38 °C.

MSDS of NaOH 50%:




Sodium. Hydroxide | Uses, Benefits, and Chemical Safety Facts. (2018, August 21). Retrieved December 5, 2018, from https://www.chemicalsafetyfacts.org/sodium_hydroxide/


Hong, J., Chen, W., Wang, Y., Xu, C., & Xu, X. (2014). Life cycle assessment of caustic soda production: a case study in China. Journal of cleaner production66, 113-120.