LABSA or Linear alkyl benzene sulfonic acid with C18H30O3S as its chemical formula is synthesized industrially by sulfonating linear alkyl benzene. LAS or Linear alkyl benzene sulfonate, the world’s most applicable synthetic surfactant, which contains the innumerous salts of sulfonated alkylbenzenes, is mostly used in detergents and many other industrial applications. The LABSA market is related to LAS production. And because of its biodegradability, it replaced with nonlinear alkylbenzenes.
Linear alkyl benzene sulfonic acid is the most common synthetic surfactant due to its approx. Affordable cost, high operational properties, and because of its structure. this product is grouped as biodegradable chemicals and as a result, it is counted as one of the most useable chemical products in detergents. LAS can be applied in both acidic and alkaline processes and also in liquid and powder appearances. It also matches able with other surfactants. It may be applied with some non-ionic and cationic surfactants to ameliorate the cleaning capability of detergents.
|Boiling Point||315 °C|
|Molar Mass||326.49 g/mol|
|Synonyms||Lauryl benzene sulfonic Acid
Lauryl benzene sulfonate
Linear Alkyl benzene Sulphonic Acid
Dodecyl Benzene Sulphonic Acid
Dodecyl Benzene Sulfonic Acid
Linear alkyl benzene sulfonic acid mainly use is for manufacturing household detergents containing washing powders and liquids, dishwashing liquids and many other detergents. More than 80% of LAS produced worldwide is used in detergent production. In addition to its usages in detergents it has many other applications that are listed below:
1) coupling agent
2) emulsifier in herbicides and other chemicals.
3) textile industry
4) wetting or dispersing agent.
They are nonhazardous materials synthesized by the sulfonating process. The structure of LAS and as a result, its application differs in physical and chemical properties due to the alkyl chain length. The linear alkyl benzene is primarily material is synthesized by the alkylation of benzene with n-paraffin in attendance of catalysts like hydrogen fluoride (HF) or aluminum chloride (AlCl3). The general method to produce Linear Alkyl benzene Sulfonic acid (LAS) is the sulfonating of Linear Alkyl benzene (LAB) with sulfur trioxide (SO3).
Industrially production of this material is due to multitude falling film reactors. In this kind of reactors, a diluted gaseous stream of SO3 in dry air is contacted with liquid LAB. after batch process LAS is thwarted to the required salt. In general, Surfactants are utilized in the industry required to enhanced contact between polar and non-polar mediums such as oil and water.
Hazardous effects on the environment
Linear alkyl benzene sulfonate and Linear alkyl benzene sulfonic acid have no detrimental result on agricultural crops. The research’s on biodegradability of this product has been studied in natural media. Studies have presented that linear alkyl benzene sulfonate does not have risky effects on the environment. Linear alkyl benzene sulfonate has a half-life of about one day in wastewater sludge and natural water resources and a half-life of one to three weeks in soils media. Aquatic environmental safety evaluations have also presented that the material has not hazardously effect in these media.
sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES) with commercial name of Texapon is an anionic surfactant with CH3(CH2)11(OCH2CH2)nOSO3Na as its chemical formula that is applicable in so many personal care products like (soaps, shampoos, toothpaste, etc.). SLES is derived from natural oils like coconut oil.
sodium lauryl ether sulfate is an anionic surfactant which is matchable with both fat and water. except SLES sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS)
ammonium lauryl sulfate (ALS) and sodium pareth sulfate are materials used as surfactants and cosmetic products primarily material.
|Property||Value and Description|
|Molecular weight||496.7 g/mol|
|Other names||lauryl ether sulfate sodium
disodium 1-dodecoxydodecane sulfate
The principal surfactants application in shampoos is to convey the shampoo cleansing properties through the washing process. There are a wide variety ranges of this surfactants, but mainly anionic surfactants are used for this kind of applications. because of less irritation property and high foaming property of ammonium salts many manufacturers increase the dosage of this product as a surfactant in cleaning products.
SLES is synthesized by ethoxylation of dodecyl alcohol, that is manufactured industrially from natural oils like coconut oil. The final ethoxylate is transformed to a half ester of sulfuric acid, that is neutralized by changing it to the sodium salt.
flourish knowledge of people due to cleanliness all over the world will likely augment demands for sodium lauryl ether sulfate or SLES market in recent years. Global appeal for laundry detergents was around 30 million tons in 2015 and will speed up at over 5% CAGR in years ahead.
As health effects of this product we can say that Sodium lauryl ether sulfate is counted as a skin, eye, and lung irritant and also it can include carcinogenic materials like 1,4-dioxane among production process. other detrimental by-products of the production process may include ethylene oxide, which is counted as carcinogenic substances in the environment.
Hydrazine is an inorganic component with N2H4 as its chemical formula. This compound is a colorless and highly flammable oily liquid with an ammonia-like odor. Its characteristics are expressed below:
|Density||1.021 g cm−3|
|Melting point||2 °C|
|Boiling Point||114 °C|
Hydrazine is extremely noxious and hazardously unstable till it dissolves in water and procures hydrazine hydrate (NH2NH2 · xH2O). Hydrazine molecular weight is 32 and the hydrazine hydrate with one H2O molecule or monohydrate has a molecular weight of 50. The ratio of their weight is 32/50 or 0.64. it means 100% of hydrazine hydrate contains 64 % of hydrazine. so it is important to clearly expression by means of application due to not misunderstanding of these two products.
Because of its spectacular structure with two amines, hydrazine is a key parameter for the preparation of many organic heterocyclic compounds. In the specific reaction, hydrazine reacts with imides to produce triazoles. As a brilliant nucleophile compound, it can attack sulfonyl and acyl halides. To produce hydrazones there is a need to Reaction occurrence between The tosylhydrazine and carbonyls. it also has a Wide variety of applications in agrochemicals, as an anti-scaling, purification processes heating and cooling systems
Hydrazine hydrate is a colorless liquid that smells like ammonia. It is Also called Hydrazine Monohydrate. This compound is miscible in water in any congruence and it is not soluble in chloroform. If this component mix with the carbon dioxide in the air the product is a white fume. It is known with H6N2O as its chemical formula. Its characteristics are expressed below:
|Density||1.032 g/ml at 20⁰C|
It is estimated that the Compound Annual Growth Rate of hydrazine hydrate market gains 4.9% up to 2024. Increasing the requirement of polymer foams in related industries have a major effect on the hydrazine hydrate market due to the prognosis period. Its application in many industries will help the market to grow.
There are some methods for hydrazine hydrate synthesis and three methods are mentioned here:
First method: synthesis of hydrazine hydrate from hydrazine sulfate and potassium hydroxide, for this purpose, the mixture of dehydrating hydrazine sulfate and comminuted potassium hydroxide and distilled water were placed. For the first of reaction heating is not dispensable and in the following heating is necessary. Reaching pure hydrazine hydrate needs fractional distillation and it will distill in the temperature range of 117 to 119.
Second method: synthesis of hydrazine hydrate from hydrazine sulfate and sodium hydroxide
In this method hydrazine sulfate and sodium hydroxide are applied to a flask with a condenser and distilled water are appended gently through the condenser; the reaction starts and it is very important that any vapors should not be released through the condenser. Hydrazine hydrate may be titrated with standard acid using methyl orange as an indicator or about 0.1 gram, accurately weighed, of the hydrazine hydrate solution is diluted with about 100 ml of water, few drops of starch indicator added, and immediately before titration 5 grams of sodium bicarbonate is introduced. The product is distilled by direct heating. The distillate is a clear liquid and it consists of 40-45% of hydrazine hydrate.
Third method: A procurement procedure of hydrazine hydrate which contains the step of hydrolyzing a ketazine in a distillation column to reach hydrazine hydrate in presence of silicon dioxide and nonionic surface active agent having a polyoxyethylene group in its molecule.
it has a wide range of applications in industries and can be applied as pharmaceutical intermediates, procurement of superb purity metals, in combinatorial fibers, dyes and as reducing agent and it also can use an oxygen scavenger to regulate the concentration of oxygen to prevent corrosion. One of its important usages is as the precursor to polymerization catalysts. Another application of hydrazine hydrate is as rocket fuel and gas precursors preparation in airbags.
Hydrazine hydrate safety and Precautions
This chemical is grouped as hazardous materials by the 2012 OSHA Hazard Communication Standard
Cause it is very air sensitive so do not allow evaporation to dryness it causes smoke
Acquire special instructions before use
Before use read all statements about precautions
Do not tactility until all safety precautions have been read and realized
Use personal protective tools as required Wash face, hands and any exposed skin thoroughly after handling
Do not eat, drink or smoke when using this component
Use only outdoors or in a well-ventilated area
Do not breathe dust/fume/gas/mist/vapors/spray
Polluted work clothing should not be allowed out of the workplace
Put on protective gloves
Keep away from heat/sparks/open flames/hot surfaces
No smoking Keep cool
Noxious if swallowed
Noxious in contact with skin Causes extreme skin burns and eye damage
May cause respiratory inflammation
May cause an allergic skin reaction
Noxious if inhaled May cause cancer
Polymers used in water treatment are of high water solubility and they are synthetic, although a few natural polymers use because of their awesome characteristics. Polymers are broadly specified by their ionic content: cationic, anionic and non-ionic. indeed, ionic polymers should be named polyelectrolytes, although this phrase is not always pursued. One of these polymers which known as an efficacious polyelectrolyte is Polyacrylamide.
This polymer is widely used as a flocculant in the treatment of both industrial and municipal wastewater. And as its high separation and purification feature, it can be used in a wide range of industrial wastewater treatments like chemical industries, food industries, inorganic suspensions like kaolin and bentonite, effluents containing colors, paper industries, effluents containing metal ions and limited extent purified sewage. According to the tables below each industry can select desired items due to its application and related industry even drinking water purification and sewage treatment.
|product code||charge density||molecular weight|
|product code||charge density||molecular weight|
|product code||charge density||molecular weight|
In this part, some examples of how an industry can select these electrolytes as flocculant for treatment of its wastewater are described.
For instance, drinking water grade PAM is mainly used in water purification and sugar making industries, fermentation industries and, etc. and also for treatment of raw water both polyacrylamide and poly aluminum chloride can be applied to separation and flocculation of solid and liquid phases but using PAM will reduce other additives amount that lead to diminish in costs and remained sludge.
industrial grade polyelectrolytes
For this purpose, these two grades of PAM A556PWG, A656PWG is Recommended. In food industries like sugar producing PAM is sufficient in the purification of the solution and high performance of flocculation so A756PWG is Recommended for this purpose. for treatment of sugar cane molasses industry mixture of conventional coagulants like poly aluminum chloride and PAM give us a brilliant result and for this purpose, these two grades are recommended. in industrial fermentation to purification solutions from solids these grades A556PWG, A756PWG and also C8040PWG, are recommended.
|product code||charge density||molecular weight|
Morpholine is an organic chemical component with O(CH2CH2)2NH as its chemical formula. because it has atoms of at least two different elements as members of its ring(s) this chemical component is grouped in heterocyclic compounds and it contained both amine and ether functional groups. Because it has amine in its structure, it is grouped in bases. and it reacts with acids to produce salt or acrylamide. this product is a colorless liquid with a smell like fish (ammonia) and with the 100°F Flashpoint. this material density is less than water and it is miscible in water and a variety of organic solvents like aromatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, ketones, and ether. it is partly miscible in oils. its Vapors are heavier than air. It has limited miscibility in alkaline aqueous solutions
This component also known by these names:
it can be specified by gas chromatography (GC) liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ion chromatography (IC). Low concentrations of this compound in the air can be determined by the GC analyzer.
In the industrial scale, Morpholine is often procreated by the dehydration reaction of diethanolamine with sulfuric acid.
It is guesstimated that around 25000 tons of this component per year are produced industrially globally. The main production procedure is the reaction between diethylene glycol and ammonia in the attendance of hydrogen and catalysts.
This compound also is used to make other chemicals and detergents. One of these compound applications is to avoid metals from corrosion especially in systems which are dealing with water like steam boiler systems; as an emulsifier in cosmetics industry; a segregating factor for light amines; an intermediate in the production of optical Illuminators; an intermediate agent for textile lubricants, softening factor, as a collaborator, whitening factor, sizing emulsifiers, antioxidants, surface-active factor, plasticizers, viscosity ameliorative and insecticides, herbicides, dyes, catalysts, bactericides, analgesics, anesthesia agents.
Flammable liquid and vapor
Harmful if swallowed
Toxic in contact with skin
Causes severe skin burns and eye damage
Harmful to aquatic life
Keep away from heat, sparks, flames, hot areas, and No smoking because this compound is flammable.
Human and environmental disclosure arises and directly from some of its usages, containing, for instance, its use in the cosmetic industry and waxes and rubbers and corrosion inhibitor usage. As a result of its use in waxes and polishes, morpholine is released into the environment through vaporization. Morpholine is chemically permanent in the biosphere. Morpholine is a noxious compound consumed in industrial and agricultural purposes and can be absorbed
into the body through absorbency, aspiration, and through the skin and through its absorption it can affect the structure of the kidney and disrupted its activity. It also causes annoyance on metabolic mechanisms.
Influence of morpholine on changes in kidney tissue and white
blood cells of NMRI male Albino Mice, Zare K, PhD1, Adeli HR, MSc2*, Naeimi N, MSc3, Naghizadeh A, PhD
Cyclohexylamine is an organic compound that is grouped to the aliphatic amine type. It is a colorless liquid, although, like many amines components, they are often colored through their dissolved contaminants. Cyclohexylamine is known with C6H13N as its chemical formula. It smells like fish (ammonia)and it is miscible in water. Due to its nature and ammonia groups, it is a weak base. It is a beneficial intercurrent in the procurement of many other organic materials. This is a high consumable volume chemical with procurement over 1 million pounds annually in the U.S.
It is also called:
Cyclohexylamine is procured through two routes, the principal one known as hydrogenation of aniline in the presence of cobalt or nickel as the catalyst:
Cyclohexylamine is used through the synthesis reaction of other organic compounds as an intermediate. It is the chemical precursor to materials with sulfenamide based reagents and it is used as accelerators for vulcanization. It may use as corrosion Preventive. Some sweeteners are made of this kind of amine, especially cyclamate. It is also used in hexazinone and the anesthetic production.
It has been used as an aid in the printing ink industry too. It is also used in a water treatment plant agent and to procure Sodium N-cyclohexylsulfamate. It is used in the metalworking fluids industry.
because of its low flash point at 28.6 °C, it is flammable. It is noxious by both ingestion and inhalation; the inhalation itself may cause death. It rapidly absorbs through the skin to the body, which may cause inflammation. And It is also corrosive. Cyclohexylamine is known as acutely hazardous materials as defined in Standards .the standard amount of cyclohexylamine that is allowed to be exposed by workers is less than 10 ppm (40 mg/m3) through an eight-hour work shift.
It ca cause earnest or continual injuries. It is highly flammable and can be ignited under almost all environmental temperature situations and this compound is totally stable in whole circumstances. Its vapor may go through a considerable distance
Through the combustion process, toxic oxides of nitrogen may exposure it is also attached to the nervous system. And related to standards 50-500 mg/kg can be lethal for a human.
Benzotriazole (BTA) is a chemical compound which is known by C6H5N3 as its chemical formula. because it has atoms of at least two different elements as members of its ring(s). This chemical component is grouped in heterocyclic compounds. This component also known by these names:
This compound is an odorless, crystalline powder and can be utilized in a various range of applications. Three kinds of material involve in BTA reaction: o-phenylenediamine, sodium nitrite, and acetic acid. In lower temperature about 5 to 10 ˚C the synthetic reaction can be ameliorated.
Although this chemical compound has a lot of uses in many industries but the most prevalent application is impeded metals against corrosion particularly for copper. Copper due to its various application in various ranges of industries is exposed to corrosion. To prevent this effect Benzotriazole used as a barrier film to hamper metals due to corrosion and damaging. This function is operational for many types of equipment that are pertinent to water like cooling water systems. For other metals like aluminum, it has its Corrosion prevention application too. When Benzotriazole applied on the surface of the metal it does not change its appearance. It is just a top coat to prevent damaging and doesn’t have any other effects for the metal. Benzotriazole has been famous for its excellent conformity and a reagent for the analytical specification of silver. BTA can be used as antifreeze, heating and cooling systems, hydraulic fluids and vapor phase inhibitors as well.
As a matter of environmental issues, Benzotriazole is forcefully stable in natural environments like water and soil. And a small amount of it may prevent plants growth. They may decompose by the Fenton reactions. This compound is partially released from wastewater treatment plants and a considerable portion reaches surface water such as rivers and lakes, as a result, this chemical component should not be released into the environment. Keep in suitable, closed containers for disposal in Laboratory scale and treated before Released in the environment on an industrial scale. Dispose of container to an approved waste disposal plant in order to Non-release in the environment.
noxious if swallowed and may Causes serious eye inflammation
Flash Point: 170 °C / 338 °F
Autoignition Temperature: 210 °C / 410 °F
Ensure sufficient ventilation, use personal accouterments and avoid dust formation.
Tolyltriazole is a chemical compound which is known by C7H7N3 as its chemical formula. tolyltriazole is commonly used for the commercial combination consisted of nearly the same amounts of 4- and 5-methyl benzotriazole with a small content of the 6- and 7- methyl isomers. this chemical component is grouped in heterocyclic compounds. This component also known by these names:
Tolyltriazole is used as an inhibitor of corrosion of copper and copper alloys. Also, it used as antirust additives of metals. This compound doesn’t have any influence on metals appearance, conductivity, and electricity.
These two compounds can bring in one data sheet because their application is almost the same but their chemical structure and appearance is Different.
Phosphino Carboxylic Acid (PCA) is an organic component with molecular formula CH3O2P. It is a clear and colorless liquid, with a slight odor and the pH range of 3-3.5. Phosphino Carboxylic Acid has extraordinary properties. It is completely soluble in water and improves water quality. So it is also known as a water treatment agent.
This product composed of carboxylic acid and phosphate groups. Therefore PCA has good thermal stability for these phosphate groups and at the same time, it has the characteristics of carboxylic acids.
It is classified as a dispersion agent and can be used in water treatment and boiler water system. In addition to the mentioned properties, PCA can be a good inhibitor for CaCO3, CaSO4, and BaSO4.
PCA has corrosive properties. it can cause skin burns or corrosive some metals. So safety tips should be considered when using this material.
NOTE: it is important to know that, this product has an industrial application and should not use for treating drinking water.
Application of PCA
It is suggested to be used in cooling water or boiler systems, oilfield, reverse osmosis (RO), ceramic industry, etc.
Calcium carbonate is one of the most important materials that use in the ceramic industry. So the use of PCA in ceramic industries can disperse CaCO3. therefore it can control the CaCO3 scale and improve properties.
Boiler systems produce hot water or vapors in Power plants, factories and etc.
Some impurities like CaCO3 and CaSO4 in the boiler system can cause deposition and eventually boilers to fail. Therefore use this product as dispersion, preventing sedimentation and improve the life of boilers.
In boiler systems, this product can be stable until 900 psig pressure.
In a cool water system, Phosphino Carboxylic Acid retains the heat transfer property and acts as a corrosion inhibitor. By adding ZnSO4 or copolymer with this product, the inhibitory effect of PCA can improve. In a cool water system, the probability of calcium carbonate formation increases in high pH. So in alkaline conditions by adding this product, The problem of calcium carbonate formation can be solved.
Industrial wastewater has some impurities that can damage the environment. With recycle, these impurities can help nature or reduce cost. both of HEDP and Phosphino Carboxylic Acid use in the water treatment process. But a little use of this product is equivalent to HEDP and is superior to polyacrylates.
Phosphino Carboxylic Acid in pulp and paper industry acts like as phosphonates and acrylates. This product is stable in alkaline conditions and can control the scale of CaCo3 and CaSO4.
Due to its specific visibility, impartiality and affordability of barium sulfate, it is widely used in the oil and gas drilling industry. This is one of the vital minerals in the oil drilling industry. By adding this product, it can affect as a scale inhibitor for BaSO4 and SrSO4.
Storage this product in a cold and dry place.
ATMP or amino trimethylene phosphonic acid is an organic compound and having a high melting point of 215 °C and a density of 1.3 g/mL at 25 °C. ATMP acid plus, its sodium salts are broadly applied in for anti-scaling and descaling operations and recirculated cooling water systems for power station, oil field, central air-conditioning, refinery and etc. the Molecular Formula is N(CH2PO3H2)3. ATMP has excellent chelation. It can prevent the
Molecular Formula: N(CH2PO3H2)3
Molecular weight: 299.05
CAS No. 6419-19-8
creation of calcium carbonate in particular, in the water system. Also, it is able to reduce the corrosion of metal equipment and pipeline. ATMP has good chemical stability. It is hard to be hydrolyzed in water system due to a chemical bond between C_P. it forms Sustainable Complex with numerous metal such as Fe, Cu, Al, Zn,…. It is crystal powder in solid state and dissolvable in water, suitable for usage in winter and freezing districts but mostly it present in the colorless liquid state in marketing.
ATMP make use of chelating factor in woven and dyeing industries and as a metal surface treatment agent. ATMP utilize with other organic acids, polylactic acid or salt to form organic water treatment agents for circulating cooling water systems.
It is used for petroleum addable, Textile auxiliary factors, chemical filtration.
Why Should You Treat Your Boiler Water with ATMP?
Boilers are very sentimental to the quality of water used. Presence of high degree of dissolved solids suspended particles, and sludge in boiler water is undesirable. They cause scaling of the boiler tubes thereby negatively touching its output. This results in the cost of production are high.
ATMP can improve boiler water conditions. By chelating action, it makes carbonates and sulfates remain in solution form. So no deposition will occur. Usually, the boiler can collapse when boiler tubes are heated beyond the melting point of the metal. It results from rising temperatures on the fireside as thick scales prevent effective heat transfer. Replacing a boiler is too expensive. And that’s why it’s better to treat boiler water.
Oilfield scaling such as limescale (calcium carbonate) may conduce to obstruction of pipes or slow down the fluid flow. Preventing this scaling in the oil and gas industry is essential in continuing high efficiency.
ATMP 50 is recommended for use as a scale inhibitor in refinery and thermal power plants.
It can store for ten months in room shady and dry place.
(1) ammonium chloride was added to the kettle, phosphorous acid aqueous solution and water, heated to 60 ℃ ~ 70 ℃ and efficiently shattered to completely dissolve the material; formaldehyde solution was then added dropwise, and the temperature control at 90 ℃ ~ 105 ℃, after finishing of the dropwise addition of formaldehyde, HCl generated was recovered by recovery of hydrochloric acid; turn fed to a distillation kettle after (2) incubation, slowly heated to 110 ~ 120 ℃ when omit unreacted ammonium chloride, formaldehyde, until no material was distilled off, the cooling water through cooling, discharge products.
In case of contact with eyes, clean immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves, and eye/face protection.