Hydrochloric acid (HCl) is a clear, colorless, highly pungent solution of hydrogen chloride in water that constitutes the majority of gastric acid, the human digestive fluid. It is an extremely important product of the chemical industry and used in many industrial processes. The Other names are Muriatic acid, Spirits of salt, Hydronium chloride and Chlorhydric Acid. In a complex process and at a large energetic burden, it is secreted by parietal cells (also known as oxyntic cells). These cells contain an extensive secretory network (called canaliculi) from which the HCl is secreted into the lumen of the stomach. They are part of the epithelial fundic glands (also known as oxyntic glands) in the stomach. This substance is the aqueous (water-based) solution of hydrogen chloride gas (HCl). It is a strong acid, the major component of gastric acid and wide industrial use. It must be handled with appropriate safety precautions because it is a highly corrosive liquid. Hydrochloric acid, or muriatic acid by its historical but still occasionally used name, has been an important and frequently used chemical from early history and was discovered by the alchemist Jabir ibn Hayyan around the year 800. Hydrogen chloride, also known under the name HCl, is a highly corrosive and toxic colorless gas that forms white fumes on contact with humidity. These fumes consist of this product which forms when hydrogen chloride dissolves in water.
Physical and Chemical Properties
This substance has many uses. It is used in the production of chlorides, fertilizers, and dyes, in electroplating, in the photographic, textile, rubber industries, Steel Pickling, as cleaning agent, is used to regulate the pH level in a wide range of manufacturing and treatment processes including the production of drinking water, pharmaceuticals, beverages, and foods. To regenerate ion exchangers Production of inorganic compounds, pH control, and neutralization. it is used for a large number of small-scale applications, such as leather processing, purification of common salt, household cleaning, and building construction. HCl is corrosive to the eyes, skin, and mucous membranes. Acute (short-term) inhalation exposure may cause eye, nose, and respiratory tract irritation and inflammation and pulmonary edema in humans. Acute oral exposure may cause corrosion of the mucous membranes, esophagus, and stomach and dermal contact may produce severe burns, ulceration, and scarring in humans. Chronic (long-term) occupational exposure to hydrochloric acid has been reported to cause gastritis, chronic bronchitis, dermatitis, and photosensitization in workers. Prolonged exposure to low concentrations may also cause dental discoloration and erosion.
Some other uses of this material are as follows
1.For the Production of Organic Compounds
2.For the Production of Inorganic Compounds
3.For removing metal stains
4.For cleaning pools
5. For digesting foods
6.For the purification of Table Salt
7.For Neutralization and pH Control
8.For regeneration of ion exchangers
9.For oil production