Ammonium chloride is an inorganic chemical compound used in products such as shampoos, detergents, and hair dyes.
This chemical is used in the food industry as a suitable food additive and supplement for the production of bread, ammonium chloride is easily dissolved in water and is used in the production of agricultural fertilizers and for products such as rice or wheat.
Ammonium chloride is in the form of white crystals under standard conditions like talc powder. It does not have a specific odor and its taste is salty. This salt gives acidic properties to the solution when dissolved in water. This salt is produced by combining hydrochloric acid with ammonia. Shanghai Chemex company provides this product with the highest quality
The chemical structure of this inorganic salt is as follows:
Currently, the most common use of ammonium chloride is in the agricultural industry and the production of agricultural fertilizers.
This inorganic compound absorbs moisture from the surface of metals and is also used as a surface cleaner in the plating and coating industries of alloy metals.
The presence of ammonium chloride makes the process of coating tin and zinc on the metal surface easier and of better quality.
In the following, we will learn more about the properties, characteristics, and applications of this salt.
The Physical and Chemical Properties:
As mentioned, this chemical compound is a good source of nitrogen due to the presence of ammonia in its structure.
This chemical compound is produced in both food grade and industrial grade. This chemical compound dissolves easily in water but is not compatible with ethanol. Ammonium chloride can be used in all three phases: solid, liquid, or gas.
The most important physical and chemical properties of this salt such as molar mass and PH can be summarized in the following table:
|Molecular weight (g/mol)||53.491|
|Melting point (°C)||338|
|Boiling point (°C)||520|
|PH||4.6 to 6.0|
|Solubility||Completely soluble in water, alcohol, and glycerol|
The Production Process:
Ammonium chloride can be produced in three different ways, which we will describe below:
The first method of producing this inorganic salt is through the reaction of hydrochloric acid and ammonia, during this reaction, a relatively large amount of heat will be released and cooling systems must be considered to control this temperature.
Ammonia is in the gas phase during this reaction and the total pressure of the reaction will be less than one atmosphere.
The second method is done by the reaction between ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride. The result of this reaction is ammonium chloride and sodium sulfate. The by-product of this reaction, which is sodium sulfate, does not dissolve in water and can be separated as a precipitate. The desired product is obtained after performing processes such as crystallization and drying.
The third method in the process of producing sodium carbonate, which is done by two substances, ammonia, and carbon in oxide, is ammonium chloride, which is produced as a by-product.
During this method, ammonia and carbon dioxide are dissolved in an aqueous sodium chloride solution and this salt and sodium carbonate are reacted together.
This method is suitable for continuous production on an industrial scale and requires easy access to the ammonia gas production units of factories to start the reaction.
Applications and Uses of Ammonium Chloride:
Ammonium chloride has many uses. In the past, this chemical compound was used to make incendiary materials, but over time, safer materials have replaced it.
This salt is used to solder and fabricate printed circuit boards and is used in research laboratories as a cooling agent for various systems.
One of the most important uses of this inorganic compound is in medicine. In medicine, this substance is used as an expectorant in cough medicines.
Its expectorant action is caused by the action of stimulating the bronchi because it causes the production of excess fluid in the respiratory system and makes breathing easier.
Of course, ammonium salts irritate the gastric mucosa and may cause nausea and vomiting. This salt helps a lot in removing kidney stones and in the pharmaceutical industry, it is used in the production of some drugs, such as antibiotics, which make the body more resistant to bacteria.
To make the excretion of toxins easier from the body, ammonium chloride is used as a laxative, usually in combination with other laxatives and antitussives.
Used in the textile industry as a dye for cotton and leather.
It is an oral supplement for cows and part of the nutrient medium for yeasts and many microorganisms in the food industry.
The use of this inorganic substance as a food additive in the production of bread is very common.
Many other industries use this acidic salt, ammonium chloride is used in the production of hair shampoos, plywood binder adhesives, and cleaning products.
Ammonium chloride is used in the textile and leather industries, in dyeing, tanning, fabric printing, and cotton clustering.
Safety; is Ammonium Chloride safe for skin?
When using this chemical, all safety tips such as using gloves and safety goggles should be observed.
Direct contact with the eyes or skin causes severe irritation and in case of contact should be washed immediately with water.
If you inhale vapors, you should move the person to the open air.
Transporting and Storage:
Use a cool and dry place to store this chemical away from heat and direct sunlight.