Ammonium chloride is an inorganic compound with the formula NH4Cl and a white crystalline salt that is highly soluble in water. This compound is a mild acid in solution and is produced by the reaction of hydrochloric acid and ammonia.
Sal is the name of the natural mineralized form of ammonium chloride, which consists of the incineration of coal waste and the concentration of gases derived from coal. It is also found around some types of volcanic pores. It is mainly used as a fertilizer and flavoring in some beverages.
Physical and Chemical Properties:
Ammonium chloride is a water-soluble white crystalline solid containing an inorganic chloride and an ammonium salt. This inorganic compound is in the form of white solid crystals that are odorless and have a salty taste.
The most important physical and chemical properties of this compound can be summarized in the following table:
|Molar mass (g/mol)||53.49|
|PH||4.6 to 6.0|
|Melting Point (° C)||350|
|Boiling point (° C)||338|
|Solubility in water||soluble|
|Solubility||Almost insoluble in acetone, ether, ethyl acetate; soluble in alcohol, liquid ammonia|
|Color||Colorless or white|
|Other names||Salmiac, Sal ammoniac, Ammonium muriate|
|Chemical Structure Depiction|| |
Ammonium Chloride Production Process:
This inorganic is usually produced in the incineration of coal-derived gases. It is also found around some types of volcanic vents.
CO2 + 2NH3 + 2NaCl + H2O → 2NH4Cl + Na2CO3
In addition to being the main method of producing ammonium chloride, this method is used to minimize the release of ammonia in some industrial operations. Ammonium chloride is commercially prepared by combining ammonia (NH3) with hydrogen chloride (gas) or hydrochloric acid (water solution)
NH3 + HCl → NH4Cl
During this reaction, a large amount of heat is released and cooling systems must be used to eliminate it.
Ammonium chloride occurs naturally in volcanic areas and is formed on volcanic rocks near fumarole outlets. Crystals precipitate directly from the gaseous state and are short-lived because they dissolve easily in water.
Applications and Uses of Ammonium Chloride:
- Ammonium chloride has a wide range of applications in various industries.
- The main application of this product is in the production of chemical fertilizers containing nitrogen.
- Ammonium chloride is used as a flux in the preparation of metals, for tin coating, galvanizing, or soldering. The compound reacts with surface metal oxides to form volatile metal chloride.
- Used in the leather industry in dyeing.
- It is also used in the food industry as yeast food in bakeries.
- In the cosmetics industry in the production of hair shampoo
- This inorganic compound is used to make drugs such as antibiotics to make the body resistant to bacteria.
- This compound has been used in laboratory research to create low temperatures in cooling baths. Ammonium chloride solutions with ammonia are used as buffer solutions including ACK (potassium ammonium chloride) lubricating buffer.
Applications of Ammonium Chloride in Medicine:
This substance also has interesting applications in the pharmaceutical and medical industries. The effectiveness of ammonium chloride is often in combination with other drugs. For example, in combination with antitussive drugs, it can act as a stimulant for mucus and thus sputum. It can also be a factor in controlling urinary pH, which is effective in treating some diseases of the urinary tract and kidney stones.
Ammonium Chloride in the Food Industry:
This compound is used as a food additive with the number E 510 and acts as a yeast nutrient in bread production and as an acidifying agent. It is used as a feed supplement for livestock and for feeding yeasts and many microorganisms.
Safety Information of Ammonium Chloride:
In order to use this chemical, you must follow the safety tips carefully and work in an environment equipped with this chemical compound. The use of protective clothing, gloves, and masks are also necessary measures to work with this chemical.
This substance may cause irritation and burns if it comes in contact with human skin. In this case, you should wash the burn site with plenty of water as soon as possible. Also, if this substance is ingested incorrectly, the person should drink plenty of water and eventually vomit. Even inhaling this substance can be harmful to the audience and the person must breathe in a free environment after inhalation.
Packing and Storage:
Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area away from incompatible substances and direct sunlight. Store below 40°C.