Phosphorus pentoxide is an anhydrous (dehydrated) form of phosphoric acid. Its chemical formula is P2O5. But this compound is unstable and forms P4O10. Its appearance is a white crystal.
Phosphorus pentoxide is used as a strong desiccant and desiccant. It is used as a dehydrating agent in organic synthesis, which is the process of forming organic compounds by reacting with other organic compounds.
Physical and chemical properties:
Phosphorus pentoxide is a white, odorless solid.
This compound is highly moisture-proof, meaning it has a strong attraction to water. Its reaction with water is highly exothermic.
The most important physical and chemical properties of this compound can be summarized in the following table:
|Molar mass||141.94 g mol−1|
|Appearance||a white amorphous powder|
|Melting Point||340 °C (644 °F; 613 K)|
|Boiling point||360 °C (sublimes)|
|Solubility in water||Soluble in water|
|Solubility||soluble in sulfuric acid|
Insoluble in acetone& ammonia
|vapor pressure||1 mmHg at 385 °C (stable form)|
|Other names||Diphosphorus pentoxide|
|Chemical Structure Depiction|
Formula and structure of Phosphorus pentoxide:
In the structure of Lewis P2O5, there are two elements, phosphorus, and oxygen. Two phosphorus atoms are connected by an oxygen atom in the structure of phosphorus pentoxide. All oxygen atoms have double bonds with phosphorus atoms.
P2O5 covalent or ionic:
Phosphorus and oxygen in phosphorus pentoxide form a covalent bond.
The bond between two non-metals is called a covalent bond and because phosphorus and oxygen are non-metals, they form a covalent bond.
Phosphorus pentoxide production process:
Anhydrous phosphorus pentoxide is produced by burning yellow phosphorus in dry air.
P2O5 (or P4O10) can be prepared by burning tetra phosphorus in an environment containing sufficient oxygen. The chemical reaction for the preparation of P2O5 is presented below:
P4 + 5O2 → 2P2O5
This compound is a source of pure phosphoric acid.
Reaction with water:
Reacts with cold water to produce toxic metaphosphates:
P2O5 + H2O→2HPO3
In Reacts to hot water, it produces toxic orthophosphate:
P2O5 + 3H2O→2H3PO4
Applications and Uses of Phosphorus pentoxide:
- It is used as a strong desiccant and disinfectant. Many reactions that require the removal of a water molecule can use P2O5.
- Used for dehydration in organic syntheses
- Phosphorus pentoxide is used as a raw material for the preparation of various phosphate esters as surfactants and extractants.
- This compound can be used to manufacture special catalysts for phosphoric acid.
- Used as a Condensing agent in organic synthesis
- It is also used in the manufacture of optical glass.
This compound can be used as an agrochemical to produce plant fertilizers. Phosphorus is the main element of plant growth.
This fertilizer is suitable for all crops and all soils. In acidic soils, it should be used with organic fertilizers. like mono potassium phosphate
Safety information of Phosphorus pentoxide:
- Causes eye burns.
- Causes severe skin irritation and burns (Danger Skin corrosion)
- Causes chemical burns to the respiratory tract. Harmful if inhaled.
- Causes gastrointestinal tract burns. Causes severe pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.
- Skin Contact: Immediately flush skin with water.
- Inhalation: move the person to the fresh air.
- Eye Contact: Rinse eyes with water for at least 15-20 minutes.
- Ingestion: Do not induce vomiting. Get medical aid immediately. Call a poison control center.
Packing and storage:
Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area away from incompatible substances. Keep containers tightly closed.