Zinc chloride with the chemical formula Zncl2 is one of the sources of zinc and has several crystalline forms and is used in chemical synthesis. Zinc chloride in solution and powder has various applications in industrial and laboratory grades. As the temperature rises, the compound decomposes to produce zinc oxide and hydrogen chloride gases.
It is widely used in various industries such as textiles, metallurgy, and chemical synthesis.
Physical and chemical properties:
Zinc chloride is a crystalline and white compound and is highly absorbent and has a significant solubility in water. This substance is usually in the form of granules and has a spicy taste.
The compound must also be protected from moisture and water vapor in the air.
|Molar mass||136.315 g/mol|
|Appearance||white crystalline solid|
hygroscopic and very deliquescent
|PH||Aqueous solutions of zinc chloride are acidic (pH = 1.0 for 6 M)|
|Melting Point||290 °C (554 °F; 563 K)|
|Boiling point||732 °C (1,350 °F; 1,005 K)|
|Solubility in water||432.0 g/ 100 g (25 °C)|
|Solubility||soluble in ethanol, glycerol, and acetone|
|Vapor Pressure||1 Pa (0.0075 mm Hg) at 305 °C|
|form||very deliquesce granules|
Chemical Structure Depiction
Structure and formula of zinc chloride:
Zinc chloride is a chemical compound with the formula ZnCl2. There are nine different crystalline forms of zinc chloride currently known.
This compound is an inorganic binary salt. A zinc chloride molecule has an ionic bond between zinc cation and chloride anions.
Zinc and chlorine bonds in ZnCl2 have some covalent properties due to their low melting point and solubility in ether solvents.
The production process of Zinc chloride:
Solid zinc chloride is produced by the reaction between zinc metal and hydrogen chloride under the following reaction:
Zn(s) + 2 HCl → ZnCl2 + H2(g)
Zinc chloride solution is produced in different ways according to the percentage of purity required.
To obtain its hydrated form with high purity, this reaction is performed at a temperature of 700 ° C with hydrogen chloride gas.
ZnS + 2 HCl + 4 H2O → ZnCl2(H2O)4 + H2S
Applications and uses of zinc chloride:
Zinc chloride in solution and powder has various applications in industrial and laboratory grades.
- Synthesis of organic products;
- In textiles to dissolve cellulose and silk fibers;
- In the production of a variety of colors;
- The electrolyte in the manufacture of dry cell batteries;
- It is commonly used as an electrolyte in solar cell batteries, which also acts as a moisture absorber and corrosion inhibitor;
- Water purification (due to water absorption);
- In the rubber industry;
- Zinc is an important element for increasing plant growth. This substance is used in combination with chelating agents in agriculture;
- Removes salts and oxides from metal surfaces;
- To develop the human immune system;
- zinc chloride in the treatment of skin cancer;
- Production of ion-exchange resin;
- In welding;
- Used as a dehydrating agent in chemical syntheses.
Application of zinc chloride in organic syntheses:
This substance is widely used in organic and excellent syntheses. Zinc chloride can be used as a Lewis acid, which is mostly used in laboratory syntheses. It is also used in combination with HCl to prepare alkaloids. It is also used in many other organic reactions.
In the wood and adhesive industries:
One of the applications of chloride is its use in the adhesive and wood industry. This material is useful for the production and preservation of adhesive and is also used in wood impregnation. Together with sodium dichromate, zinc chloride helps preserve the wood.
Harmful if swallowed;
Causes severe skin burns and eye damage;
May cause respiratory irritation;
Very toxic to aquatic life with long-lasting effects;
When consumed in excess, it can cause poisoning, severe stomach irritation, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. It is also very dangerous for the environment and has high durability.
- Skin Contact: Immediately flush skin with water.
- Inhalation: move the person to the fresh air.
- Eye Contact: Rinse eyes with water for at least 15-20 minutes.
- Ingestion: Do not induce vomiting. Get medical aid immediately. Call a poison control center.
Packing and storage:
Keep in a tightly closed container. Store in a cool, dry, ventilated area away from strong bases, strong oxidants.