Barium carbonate is a compound with the chemical formula BaCO3 and is also known as witherite, which is a mineral carbonate. The appearance of this compound is white crystals.
Barium carbonate is the main source of barium salts. One of the most important applications of this compound is in ceramic glazes. This material is used as grout in glazes.
Physical and chemical properties:
It has the experimental formula BaCO3 and a molecular weight of 197.37g/mol. This white powder is tasteless, odorless, and heavy. Decomposes to BaO and CO2 at 1300 ° C. Its vapor pressure is negligible. Barium carbonate is almost insoluble in water.
The most important physical and chemical properties of this compound can be summarized in the following table:
|Molar mass||197.34 g/mol|
|Melting Point||811 °C (1,492 °F; 1,084 K)|
|Boiling point||1,450 °C (2,640 °F; 1,720 K)|
Decomposes from 1360 °C
|Solubility in water||16 mg/L (8.8°C)|
22 mg/L (18 °C)
24 mg/L (20 °C)
24 mg/L (24.2 °C)
|Solubility||decomposes in acid|
insoluble in methanol, ethanol and sulfuric acid
|Chemical Structure Depiction|
Synthesis of barium carbonate:
For the commercial production of barium carbonate, the reaction of barium sulfide with sodium carbonate at a temperature of 60 to 70 ° C or the passage of carbon dioxide gas on barium sulfide at a temperature of 40 to 90 ° C is used.
In this process, solid or dissolved sodium carbonate is added to barium sulfide, and barium carbonate is precipitated and smoothed.
BaS + Na2CO3→ BaCO3 + Na2S
BaS + H2O + CO2 → BaCO3 + H2S
Applications and uses of barium carbonate:
-In the manufacture of agricultural pesticides, insecticides, and germicides.
-Use of barium carbonate in the manufacture of titanates, ferrites, refractories.
-This material is also the main source of barium salts.
-Barium carbonate is used in the manufacture of medical glass. Adding it to the glass increases the transparency of the glass and reduces the light scattering in it.
In addition, it increases the hardness of the glass and makes it resistant to scratches.
Other applications of barium carbonate:
-Melting agent in welding.
-Coagulation of synthetic plastics.
-Ahar adhesive stabilizer
Barium carbonate in the production of ceramic tiles:
Barium carbonate is mostly used in ceramics (in ceramic glazes). This material acts as a slurry in the glaze as a crystallizing agent and combination with colored oxides, produces unique colors that can not be obtained by other methods. Barium carbonate is added to clay in the manufacture of bricks, tiles, and pottery, converting soluble sulfates in the composition to insoluble barium sulfate. Soluble sulfates in pottery and ceramics absorb moisture from the air and expand, causing the ceramic to crack. Also, after the ceramics dry, the soluble sulfates in them appear as dandruff on the ceramics.
Another application of barium carbonate is in the ceramic industry and the manufacture of electroceramics. These ceramics are made of iron oxide and carbonate along with barium or strontium and lead.
Safety information of barium carbonate:
This chemical is highly toxic. Severe intoxication with this substance can cause disorders in the gastrointestinal tract, tendon reflexes, seizures, and muscle paralysis.
Inhalation of barium carbonate cause irritation of the respiratory tract.
May be harmful in contact with skin. May cause irritation.
Harmful if swallowed. Ingestion may cause gastrointestinal irritation, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.
Skin Contact: Immediately flush skin with water.
Inhalation: move the person to the fresh air.
Eye Contact: Rinse eyes with water for at least 15-20 minutes.
Ingestion: Do not induce vomiting. Get medical aid immediately. Call a poison control center.
Packing and storage:
Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area away from incompatible substances. Keep containers tightly closed.