Benzene is an important and widely used aromatic compound that is present in various materials such as resins, lubricating oils, agricultural pesticides. Benzene is a hydrocarbon that is mostly used as a solvent in industry or laboratory applications.
This hydrocarbon was first discovered by a British scientist named Michael Faraday, and over time new methods were developed for its synthesis.
The appearance of this organic compound is a colorless liquid that has a relatively high melting point and low solubility in water. It is flammable and highly volatile, which its chemical formula is C6H6.
The chemical structure of benzene has interesting properties, the length of carbon-carbon bonds in its structural ring is almost equal, and it has created a resonant structure for it.
Long-term use of this chemical can have negative effects on human health, reduction and dysfunction of the immune system, anemia, and in some cases, cancer are the negative effects of long-term use of this chemical.
Acetone and toluene are similar chemicals to benzene that have similar properties and applications.
In the following, we will learn more about its physical and chemical properties and its wide applications.
Physical and chemical properties:
Benzene is both naturally occurring and can be produced synthetically, a chemical found in molten material from volcanic eruptions, smoke from cigarettes or tobacco, or materials such as adhesives, paints, and detergents. There is also, as mentioned, this substance has many derivatives is very volatile. This chemical is compatible with alcohol, acetone, acetic acid, chloroform, and diethyl ether.
The chemical formula and chemical of benzene are as follows:
The most important physical and chemical properties of this aromatic compound can be summarized in the table below:
|Molecular weight (g/mol)||78.11|
|Viscosity (μPa s)||228.4|
|Melting point (°C)||5.5|
|Boiling point (°C)||80.1|
|Solubility in water||Completely soluble|
Benzene ring and functional group:
The benzene structure is a resonant pharyngeal structure, in which carbon pounds of carbon are repeated and hydrogen is located on the outside of the structure, indicating that the distribution of electrons was very uniform and this causes a uniform electric charge in its structure, in other words, both poles formed by these bonds are balanced by carbon and hydrogen, and the dipoles are zero.
Solvents are arranged in the direction of their polarity. The benzene polarity index can also be called relative polarity. Its value is 2.7, which indicates that this chemical is non-polar.
There are different methods for producing benzene. In the first method, in the presence of platinum chloride and at a temperature of 60 to 200 ° C, a group of hydrocarbons reacts with hydrogen and then this organic is produced by processes such as distillation and filtration.
In another method called steam cracking, this solvent can also be produced. This method is suitable for the production of ethylene, of which this organic is a by-product, specifically benzene, a by-product of the pyrolysis reaction of diesel.
Alternatively, benzene can be produced, which is not a common method due to the difficulty of the reaction and its cost, but it can be used, in which toluene is converted to this solvent during processes.
The Importance of Benzene; What is benzene used for?
Due to its unique properties, this aromatic compound has found many applications in industry or even in our daily lives, of course, since the dangers of this substance were reported, its use was limited or alternatives such as acetone or toluene were used. Here are the most important uses of this solvent:
- Benzene is used as a solvent and in the production of chemicals such as phenol, nitrobenzene, cyclohexane.
- This organic compound is widely used in the printing industry as a solvent to regulate the viscosity of the ink.
- This organic compound is used in the production processes of polymers, especially in the rubber industry.
- Benzene is also used as an adhesive in the shoe industry and the production of various types of shoes.
- It is used in the paint and resin industry and the production of plastics and lubricants.
- This aromatic compound can play a good role as a cleaner and degreaser in the industry, especially for cleaning and degreasing metals, hydraulic systems, or fuel systems.
Safety; What does benzene do to your skin?
Benzene has long been known as a carcinogen. It is best to control all tests and activities performed with benzene, and avoid prolonged contact, observe all safety and health tips when working with this organic compound.
be sure to use safety gloves, masks, and goggles. This chemical can be absorbed by the human body and enter the bloodstream in direct contact with the skin and have adverse effects on the immune system.
Observing safety tips is the most important thing to consider.
Transporting and storage:
Use suitable barrels for storing this organic chemical and keep the barrels away from heat or direct sunlight in a cool and dry place.