PBTC with the full name of 2-Phosphonobutane -1, 2, 4-Tricarboxylic Acid, is a chemical composition from the phosphonate family. C7H11O9P is the chemical formula of this substance.
In the structure of this phosphonate, carbon is attached to phosphorus and phosphorus to oxygen. The presence of a strong bond between phosphorus and carbon makes these materials hydrolyze difficult. PBTC in standard conditions is yellowish in appearance, but it is also available in powder form. the water-soluble form of this phosphonate is also common.
Phosphonobutane is mainly used in aqueous systems as an anti-fouling and anti-corrosion agent and this yellow liquid is used for cleaning metals. It’s a good stabilizer for zinc salt, and it’s also used in the production of polyamide resins.
Physical and chemical properties of PBTC:
As mentioned, phosphonobutane dissolves completely in water. But its hydrolysis is not very easy, its derivatives include esters, anhydrides, acyl halides, and nitriles, and the most important physical and chemical properties of this material can be summarized in the table below:
|Molecular weight (g/mol)||270.13|
|Boiling point (°C)||545.2±60.0|
Synthesis and production:
In general, there are different ways to prepare this phosphonate some of the most important of these are described below:
In the first method, we can use dimethyl hydrogen phosphate with dimethylformamide in the presence of sodium monoxide. Over time, methyl acrylate is added to it, and after hydrolysis, the desired substance is obtained.
In the second method, tetramethyl phosphonosuccinate and methyl acrylate are used. Over time, and with the addition of chloric acid to the system, the desired product is synthesized.
In the third method, which is a continuous method, dimethyl hydrogen phosphate, and maleic anhydride are used in the presence of sodium methoxide, then methyl acrylate is added to the system and the desired product is obtained by cooling and hydrolyzing.
There are other methods for producing this material, the raw materials used in most of them are similar and their differences are in the techniques, for example, some differences in the order of adding consumables or the order of performing facial operations has taken.
Application and uses of PBTC:
The physical and chemical properties have made it widely used in water treatment industries, to eliminate metal ions such as magnesium and calcium and remove or control water hardening agents such as carbonate. it is commonly used in combination with zinc salts, copolymers, organophosphine and imidazole.
In short, the applications of this anti-fouling substance can be classified into general and special applications, which we refer to in the following headlines:
- Calcium carbonate precipitate inhibitor;
- Calcium sulfate precipitate inhibitor;
anti-corrosion in carbon acetyl;
- In detergents and cleaning agents;
- Inhibitor of silica and silicate deposition in water cooling systems and boilers.
- This stabilizer is used as a selective inhibitor to prevent the deposition of iron oxide on the furnace wall in the iron ore process.
- Used in the process of producing paper and paste.
- This anti-corrosion agent can be used as a slowing agent for the hardening of cement, especially cement with high aluminum oxide.
More details on the use of this product are as follows:
- This phosphonate is one of the chelating agents of metals and prevents their corrosion and it is also used for cleaning metals.
- phosphonobutane Used in cosmetics as a stain remover and white stabilizer.
- In detergent products, its roles as a disinfectant.
- this anti-fouling substance Used in agricultural industries to produce chemical fertilizers and herbicides.
- In the process of oil extraction, oil is extracted from the well in the early stages by the pressure in its reservoir. But after a while, the pressure drops and they have to use some fluids to make enough pressure. In offshore drilling, they use seawater to provide the required pressure. The water entering the well has high ion concentrations, which can be deposited after a while and cause clogging in the well, sediment inhibitors such as Phosphonobutane to prevent minerals such as calcium carbonate, calcium sulfate, barium sulfate, and strontium sulfate when drilling and in the production line, they are very efficient.
The use of gloves, goggles, and special clothing is recommended when you are working with this material and it is also necessary to observe all safety tips.
In case of direct contact with the skin, this anti-corrosion agent can cause inflammation or irritation.
Avoid inhaling this substance strongly because it has adverse effects on the body’s respiratory system.
The entry of this stabilizer into the human eye can cause damage to it.
Prolonged use of this stabilizer can cause allergies
Transporting and storage:
In the storage of these materials, it is better to use proper ventilation, for storage, use special and suitable containers and keep them away from heat and direct sunlight.